Here we look under the skin, and how ZO Skin Health products help you by penetrating deeper and going under the skin.

Is it safe to use retinol in the summer?

Retinol has long been the gold standard youth-booster, but it has a bad rap when it comes to sun sensitivity. Read on to discover why this is so undeserved… 

Skincare experts the world over rave about the restorative benefits of retinol, recommending the active to anyone looking to lessen lines, wrinkles, pigmentation and even acne breakouts. In fact, retinoids – the umbrella name for derivatives of vitamin A, of which retinol is one – are one of the most researched skincare ingredients, according to cosmetic doctor Emmaline Ashley.  

“With more than 40 years of clinical data behind them, we know retinoids can effectively increase cell turnover, stimulate collagen production, reduce sebum production, and aid skin healing,” shares Ashley.  

But there are many misconceptions that surround retinoids and when it comes to retinol especially, the most prevalent myth is that it’s best not to use it during the summer months. But is there any truth to this?  

 

The truth about retinol 

Available without a prescription, retinol is the most commonly used retinoid in over-the-counter skincare, and although it works in the same way as prescription retinoids, it is far milder. And while sensitivity, dryness and redness can be an issue when you first begin, or if you don’t gradually work your way up the strength ladder – “there is no evidence that it makes your skin photosensitive. Meaning it’s a total myth that it will cause your skin to burn in UV light,” reveals Ashley. 

This is a misconception that was likely born out of the advice to avoid the sun when using retinoids, “but that has more to do with UV light inactivating the chemical formula than anything else,” says Ashley.  

Studies have proven this, showing that retinoids don’t impact the minimal erythemal dose of human skin, which is the amount of UV light the skin can tolerate before burning. So, in actual fact the skin doesn’t become any more sensitive to the sun after retinoid exposure, it’s retinoids themselves that are sensitive to the sun. They break down making them less effective, which is why most experts recommend using retinol at night. 

However, even though retinol doesn’t exacerbate your skins’ sensitivity to the sun, “you should be wearing a high broad-spectrum sunscreen all year round,” advises Ashley. Why? Because even retinol has its limits, and repeated sun exposure causes the breakdown of collagen and elastin, and an increase in melanin production, leading to lines and wrinkles, hyperpigmentation, and a leathery look to the skin that will be hard to reverse once the damage is done. 

Four steps to skin rejuvenation

Who doesn’t want fresh, glowy skin for summer? Skin that exudes radiance is a highly coveted beauty asset, and luckily there are a plethora of products and procedures that can help you achieve that aim.

Successfully rejuvenating the skin can be achieved with tried and tested topical ingredients such as vitamin C, niacinamide, retinol or hyaluronic acid. There’s no one-size-fits-all solution here as everyone’s skin will benefit from a bespoke approach – it’s best to speak to a qualified skin specialist for advice.

If you prefer to bring out the big guns, targeted in clinic options could include gentle microdermabrasion, a light peel, a touch of LED light therapy, microneedling or some skin resurfacing.

While all of the above are certified glow-getters, just one product or aesthetic treatment may not give a truly wow outcome. Consider a multi-pronged approach when formulating a plan or regime – a practitioners’ advice along with a combination of topical products and procedures will achieve the best results in the long run.

We reveal four skin rejuvenators to have on your radar right here, right now…

 

Dermalux Tri-Wave LED Phototherapy

Rated by aesthetic nurse and trainer Anna Baker who loves the diversity of conditions that can benefit from the device, this facial treatment uses non-thermal LED light energy to trigger the body’s natural processes and accelerate rejuvenation and repair of the skin. It’s ideal for those with lines, wrinkles, acne or dehydrated skin, and a course offers cumulative benefits – Baker suggests two treatments a week for four weeks, followed by one treatment per week for four weeks.

 

ZO Skin Health 10% Vitamin C Self Activating

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This superior medical grade product provides a potent 10 per cent dose of vitamin C to help remove surface discolouration, brighten and promote a more even skin tone. In addition, powerful antioxidants including tocopheryl acetate and coenzyme-Q10 help defend skin against environmental triggers, while squalene provides a hit of hydration. Another bonus is that it has an anhydrous pH, meaning there’s no water in the formulation – a win-win for both the user and the planet.

 

Profhilo

It’s becoming as iconic as Botox, although this skin booster doesn’t help to smooth out lines, it’s used to give a fresher, plumper and more firmer look to the skin. And what’s not to like about that? A series of tiny injections are placed in strategic areas of the face – and neck if you want – and you’ll require two appointments spaced two weeks apart. Dr Raquel Amado rates it for its youth-boosting properties and ability to naturally regenerate the skin.

 

ZO BB HydraFacial Brightalive Booster Serum

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The ever popular HydraFacial™ uses patented technology to cleanse, extract, and hydrate, leaving skin fresh and healthy. To amp up the treatment’s already effective results, the brand’s super serums are made with nourishing ingredients that help create an instantly gratifying glow. Powered by ZO Skin Health, HydraFacial Brightalive Booster Serum is specifically designed to brighten skin and lessen the appearance of discolouration.

The Vitamin C Commandments

Vitamin C is known as the health and wellbeing vitamin, and many of us will, if we’re not already supplementing with it, reach for it to beat colds and viruses into submission.

The popular vitamin has also reached powerhouse status in the skincare space, with dermatologists, aesthetic doctors and skin specialists deeming it essential for all skin types. Indeed, any good skincare product range will have at least one vitamin C product in its range and you’ll now find it in mainstream, as well as medical grade skincare ranges.

So why exactly should you be using vitamin C in your daily regime? This gold standard antioxidant certainly packs a punch, with many benefits from radiance boosting to evening out the skin tone. And it’s suitable for most skin types, with the exception of hypersensitive skins which may experience minor irritation.

What are the benefits of using vitamin C?

This is a truly transformative ingredient – use it for anything from brightening skin and fading pigmentation marks to firming, boosting the production of collagen and strengthening the skin barrier.

A powerful antioxidant it also helps guard against UV light damage and environmental stressors while neutralising free radicals – the scavengers that are produced when our skin is exposed to the elements, including pollution and UV rays.

While some forms of active vitamin C (in particular L-ascorbic acid) are very potent and acidic, it’s still possible for those with a more sensitive or reactive skin type to use it successfully.

If you suffer with sensitive skin it’s a good idea to check the percentage and formula of your product and introduce it into your regime gradually at first to avoid potential reactions such as dryness, redness, tingling and irritation.

What’s the best formula to look for?

To minimise potential irritation and ease your skin in, start off with a product containing a sweet-spot percentage of vitamin C – 10% is a good starting point as it will still have the power to improve your skin.

Containing 10% ascorbic acid, ZO Skin Health 10% Vitamin C Self-Activating helps brighten and redefine skin, promoting a more even tone and minimising the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles.

Additional skin-transforming ingredients include stable vitamin C derivative tetrahexyldecyl ascorbate which is proven to help prevent the appearance of new dark spots, and tocopheryl acetate and coenzyme-Q10, which provide multiple antioxidant protection. And for a boost of additional hydration, squalene mimics our body’s own natural moisturiser.

How do I add it into my daily skincare regime?

You can use vitamin C daily or every other day, either in the morning or at night. You should avoid using it with certain ingredients including benzoyl peroxide, other acids and retinol, which may upset your skin.

Those with oily skin should consult a skin specialist or dermatologist as many vitamin C products are also oily, which can cause problems.

As vitamin C is unstable and can easily lose its antioxidant properties when exposed to light, heat and air, look for products in dark or opaque packaging to help prevent the formula from oxidizing. However, once it’s turned orange or brown it’s probably oxidised and will be less effective.

While many vitamin C products are water-based, one of the key benefits of ZO Skin Health 10% Vitamin C Self-Activating is that the formula is anhydrous, which means it’s more stable, even when exposed to sunlight. However, we still recommend that you store it in a cool, dark place.

ZO Skin Health Firming Serum – Defying the Mechanism of Skin Ageing

Formulated with an exclusive biomimetric complex and anti-inflammatory system, ZO Skin Health Firming Serum reduces the appearance of sagging and skin laxity for a more defined facial contour.

The mechanism of skin ageing

The process of skin ageing is complex and influenced by a myriad of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The most prominent intrinsic biological processes involved in skin ageing are alterations in DNA repair and stability, mitochondrial function and cellular metabolism. Extrinsic factors such as UV radiation and free radical damage cause morphological alterations in the dermis, alter fibroblast activity and, ultimately, lead to a thinner epidermis, loss of collagen and weakened skin repair.

Over time, the loss of structural proteins collagen and elastin impact skin’s ability to maintain its shape and structural integrity. Unable to withstand mechanical shocks and environmental stressors, the epidermis slackens, collapses and loses its defined shape.

The Solution

Firming Serum’s bioactive formula supports the anchoring fibrils that connect the dermis to the epidermis and maintains the structural integrity of the skin.

Sodium DNA

Fibroblast cells in ageing skin become inactive and unable to restore collagen and elastin. Sodium DNA works alongside skin’s matrix formation process to support fibroblast activity and improve elasticity and firmness.

ZCORE Anti-Inflammatory Complex

Fibrillar degeneration weakens the dermal-epidermal junction and results in inadequate nutrient replenishment between the dermis and the epidermis. ZCORE complex features biomimetric tetrapeptide and sweet yellow clover to support the anchoring fibrils for dermal-epidermal junction integrity.

Clinically Proven Results

In a comprehensive clinical study of 45 participants, Firming Serum has been proven to improve the appearance of firmness, sagging and help maintain skin’s shape and strength.

97% of participants showed significant improvement in firmness by week 12 as measured by Cutometer, 88% demonstrated elasticity improvement while 93% of subjects showed significant improvement in mid-face and jawline sagging by week 12 measured by an expert clinical grader.

Comprehensive Solutions

Targeted treatment of laxity and sagging cannot replace the basics steps of a healthy routine – cleanse, exfoliation, UV and antioxidant protection. Firming Serum’s lightweight formula is mild enough to be tolerated by all skin types and suitable for sensitive skin areas. It can, therefore, be added to all anti-ageing programmes. Firming Serum is applied AM and PM after GSR and Daily Power Defense and before high molecular weight products such as Growth Factor Serum.

 

 

Hydroquinone – Everything You Need to Know

Hydroquinone (HQ) is the gold standard treatment for treating various forms of hyperpigmentation such as hormone-related melasma, post-inflammatory pigmentation and sun damage.

How does it work?

To understand how hydroquinone bleaching works, it is important to first have look at how melanin is formed. Melanin production in the skin starts with the oxidation of amino acids tyrosine and L-DOPA, catalysed by the enzyme tyrosinase. Since hydroquinone’s structure resembles that of tyrosine and L-DOPA, having it present means tyrosinase will grab hold of the hydroquinone instead of tyrosine. As a result, there’s less tyrosinase available for transforming tyrosine and L-DOPA which slows down melanin production.

By slowing down melanin production, skin becomes more evenly toned over time and dark pigmentation patches fade.

Although hydroquinone can be very effective for a number of indications, prolonged use can cause serious side effects that are hard to reverse.

Resistance

Using hydroquinone for more than six months leads to resistance to its lightening effects for more patients. After this period, the treatment no longer affects the dark spots of melasma and its bleaching effects appear more pronounced in unaffected areas.

As the active melanocytes in the affected regions can no longer be influenced by hydroquinone, hyperpigmentation in these areas can worsen.

Ochronosis

In rare, severe cases the prolonged use of high-concentration hydroquinone can lead to intense blue-black pigmentation. Ochronosis is more common among darker skin tones.

Skin Sensitivity

Hydroquinone can be harsh on the skin. Many HQ crèmes are formulated with retinoic acid to enhance hydroquinone’s bleaching efficacy, however, in some patients this combination can lead to irritant contact dermatitis.

Skin Atrophy and Telangiectasia

Some of the side effects with hydroquinone don’t even come from hydroquinone itself. A number of products on the market combine hydroquinone with ingredients such as retinoic acid, glycolic acid and topical steroids. However, prolonged use of such product can create a myriad of additional issues. For example, the combination of HQ, tretinoin and fluocinolone can lead to skin atrophy, telangiectasia and more stubborn pigmentation.

Topical steroids in HQ crèmes aim to suppress inflammation. However, topical steroids are effective only when treating trauma or disease – induced pigmentation (PIH). Therefore, topical steroids must be avoided when treating pigmentation not caused by inflammation such as melasma.

What are the alternatives?

Non-hydroquinone brightening agents can the prescribed as a healthy, maintenance system and to avoid local or systematic side effects associated with long-term HQ use.

ZO Skin Health offers comprehensive non-hydroquinone brightening system, designed for the treatment of non-specific discoloration (freckles, liver spots, uneven skin tone), prevent new spots for forming and improve skin texture.

Hydrating Cleanser

hydroquinone alternatives gentle cleanser

Formulated with sodium lauroyl amino acids and botalnic blend extracts, this gentle formula revives the skin barrier and cleanses without drying.

Exfoliating Polish

hydroquinone alternatives exfoliating polish

Featuring vitamins A, C, E and ultrafine magnesium crystals, ZO Exfoliating Polish improves skin texture, stimulates healthy circulation and provides powerful antioxidant boost.

Complexion Renewal Pads

hydroquinone alternatives complexion renewal pads

Soaked in a combination of 2% salicylic acid, glycolic acid and botanical extracts, Complexion Renewal Pads offer dual-chemical exfoliation to remove dead skin cells, reduce oiliness and fade post-inflammatory pigmentation.

Brightalive Non-Retinol Skin Brightener

hydroquinone alternatives brightalive

Brightalive uses multi-vectored skin brightening approach to minimise the appearance of spots and uneven skin tone, while preventing new pigmentation from forming. Formulated with the exclusive ZOX12™ slow-release antioxidant complex, liquorice root, natural enzymes and ultra-stable vitamin C. Mild enough for everyday use.

Daily Power Defense

hydroquinone alternatives daily power defense

Daily Power Defense is formulated with ultrasomes and roxisomes enzymes that initiate and speed DNA repair to enhance skin’s natural healing mechanism and protect against oxidative damage. Ceramides help restore lipid balance and strengthen the skin barrier system, while low-concentration retinol stimulates epidermal renewal and collagen production.

New ZO Skin Health Hydrating Crème – Just The Thing For Dry Skin!

Having dry skin isn’t fun in any form. The various symptoms, associated with the condition include itching, redness, uneven texture and take a serious toll on sufferers’ self-esteem.  In a survey conducted by FEMAIL, seven in ten participants agreed that having dry skin impacts their overall confidence.

So, what causes it?

Dryness can be a symptom of an overactive immune response and skin conditions such as eczema and atopic dermatitis. Sore, itching skin can also be a result of a compromised protective barrier which is often caused by improper skincare regime and environmental factors such as cold weather and low humidity.

The Solution

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Our new Hydrating Crème is a lightweight formula designed to relieve the symptoms of severely dry skin, soothe irritation and replenish skin’s natural hydration levels. It is ideal for treating moderate to severe dry skin on the face and body, including skin showing visible signs of eczema.

Benefits

• Smoothes skin texture
• Reduces itching
• Restores hydration
• Calms redness
• Supports skin barrier function
• Reduces intensity and frequency of flare-ups

Key Ingredients

Ophiopogon Japonicus Root Extract

Works in the epidermis to speed up healing and reduce the intensity and frequency of skin flare-ups. It inhibits bacteria intrusion and helps restore skin barrier functions and natural hydration levels.

Myristoyl Pentapeptide – 11

Stimulates cell renewal and helps regulate tissue repair. The multipeptide complex provides anti-inflammatory benefits and speeds up wound healing.

ZOX12

Our exclusive slow-release antioxidant complex that protects the skin from free radicals and prevents premature aging.

Clinically Proven Results

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In a clinical study conducted on patients with moderate to severe eczema, Hydrating Crème was clinically proven to be effective in restoring hydration, reducing redness and improving skin texture.
• 90% of participants reported a visible improvement in skin dryness by week 8.
• 87% reported reduction in itching by week 8.
• 85% reported reduction in redness by week 12.
• 90% reported visible improvement in skin texture and smoothness.

Growth Factors: Do They Work & How to Iclude Them in Your Routine

 

Looking for the perfect anti-ageing ingredient? Ask any skin expert for the ingredient they swear by and you will hear at least two of the following: sunscreen, retinol, antioxidants, hyaluronic acid, peptides. These are the ultimate wrinkle-fighters and radiance warriors that any skincare lover keeps in their stash. But there’s a new complexion mandate that has quietly entered the fold: growth factors.

Here’s everything you need to know about how they work and how to incorporate a growth factor serum in your routine:

What are growth factors?

Growth factors are groups of proteins that occur naturally in our bodies. They’re produced by all types of cells and are responsible for the regulation of vital cellular functions, such as survival, proliferation, migration and differentiation. Simply put, growth factors can command your cells to replicate, repair and rejuvenate.

How growth factors benefit the skin?

When it comes to fighting skin ageing, growth factors are the true all-rounders.

By our late 20s the natural production of growth factors in the skin starts to decline which lays the groundwork for wrinkles, sagging and skin thinning. Adding them topically through your skincare will stimulate the production of fibrous proteins such as collagen and elastin to improve skin thickness and texture. Boosting collagen production also enhances the skin’s natural ability to heal and hydrate.

Do they really work?

In a word? Yes. In our most recent study 92% of participants noticed significant improvement in fines and crow’s feet after following the simple routine of cleansing, applying Growth Factor Serum and wearing SPF every day for 12 weeks. Furthermore, clinicians observed 31% improvement of skin thickness after just 4 weeks of using Growth Factor Serum in the morning and evening and PM and the number continued to increase throughout the completion of the study.

Overall, 95% of participants reported visible improvement in their skin texture and smoothness, 92% reported overall improvement in all signs of ageing and 78% said their skin felt tighter and firmer.

How can I incorporate them in my skincare routine?

While growth factors are one of the best active ingredients for skin rejuvenation, they can’t replace the basics of your routine – sun protection, exfoliants and antioxidants. Think of them as the icing on the cake that can bolster your existing skincare regime and slow down the ageing process with much less irritation than other gold-standard ingredients such as retinol.

Air Pollution 101: Everything You Need to Protect Your Skin from the Smog

Air pollution isn’t just threating the environment – research shows that it’s taking a serious toll on your wellbeing and ageing your skin faster. We are all aware of the three big S’s of skin ageing – Smoke, Sun and Stress, but new discoveries show that there is another menace that is just as bad for our  skin health – Pollution.

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How air pollution affects your overall health

According to the latest London Authority Report, the capital’s population is breathing 50% more PM2.5 than the safe levels recommended by the World’s Health Organisation. Pm2.5 stands for particle matter less than 2.5 micrometres in size which means they penetrate deep into the human body and cause long-term damage. WHO attributes 3.3 million deaths per year to PM2.5 pollution and links them to a wide range of cardiovascular and respiratory disease.

What it does to your skin

Prolonged pollution exposure can damage your skin in a myriad of ways, ranging from chronic inflammation to dehydration and loss of elasticity. A  study published by the Journal of Investigative Dermatology links microscopic air contaminants to increased  skin sensitivity and premature signs of ageing, especially pigmentation issues. What is more, smog strips away vital nutrients for your skin such as vitamin E, peptides and lipids. According to the American Association of Dermatologists, people living in areas with high level of air pollution have an increased risk of suffering from acne, atopic dermatitis and rashes.

What can you do to stop it from ruining your complexion

As with most skin problems, prevention is better than cure, and luckily there are products that can help you alleviate the adverse effects If don’t want to end up wearing the consequences of city life on your face in 10 years time, get serious about your skincare routine. Here are a few simple steps that can help you tackle the environmental assault on your skin:

Clean it off:

Exfoliating-Cleanser, air pollution, skincare, london smog

A deep cleanse is imperative for city dwellers as pollution can build up on top of makeup, excess oils and nay other chemicals you come in touch throughout the day and trigger breakouts. ZO Exfoliating Cleanser is formulated with magnesium microbeads that gently exfoliate dead skin cells and trap bacteria, while the blend of salicylic acid and vitamin E neutralises free radical damage and stimulates collagen production.

 Build up antioxidants in your routine:

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Air pollutants and free radical can severely disrupt the healthy functioning of your barrier, making it susceptible to dehydration and irritation. Antioxidants, along with peptides and vitamins, help strengthen your skin and neutralise the primary triggers of skin ageing.  Daily Power Defense with an exclusive blend of antioxidants and DNA repair enzymes that penetrates the deeper layers of your skin, stimulating cell turnover and restoring its natural moisture balance.

 

 

 

 

 

UV Radiation and DNA Damage: The Science of Healthy Skin

We all know that unprotected sun exposure is never a good thing for your skin. But do you know exactly how deep UV damage runs in the skin and what long-term implications it can have on the health and appearance of your complexion. We sit down with ZO expert clinician and founder of Clinic 1.6, Dr Raul Cetto to explore the science behind UV radiation and its effects on the skin.

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•  How exactly does UV radiation affect our skin?

Dr Cetto: Regular exposure to UV radiation essentially causes chronic inflammation of the skin. Inflammation weakens the skins immunity and impedes cell function – in particular it reduces Langerhan cell count. The  Langerhan cells belong to the skin immune system and help to remove pathogens and repair mutated cells. Regular exposure to UV rays mutates our DNA and because our defence is hampered, the skin is unable to repair these mutated cells. The results of this can include discolouration, sensitivity, accelerated skin ageing and, potentially, skin cancer. All of these problems result from DNA mutations which disturb the cells’ normal functionality.

• So, we can attribute all of our skin woes to sun damage?

Dr CettoDNA mutations caused by UV radiation can cause many types of cells to function abnormally or develop in a mutated form. Discolouration can occur due to abnormally functioning melanocytes, or due to the present of their mutated forms. Dryness and roughness can be caused by dysfunctional keratinocytes making abnormally hard keratin and allowing increased water loss. Sensitivity is caused by barrier function disruption and reduced cell turnover. Redness can occur due to due to injured blood vessels and a leathery texture can develop due to dysfunctional collagen and elastin, which also causes deep folds and wrinkles in later years. Most importantly, mutation of the DNA of the cells in the skin is how skin cancers develop.

• Can the damage be repaired?

Dr Cetto: Once damaged by UV radiation, the DNA in skin cells  will affect normal skin function negatively. This damage can be limited by increasing your tolerance to UV radiation with ZO’s sun protection, formulated with melanin which enhances skin’s ability  to renew itself and the proper use of sunscreen. The new technologies found in the ZO range, for example in Daily Power Defense, can help repair damaged DNA and restore normal cellular function.

How can you incorporate DNA repair in your daily skincare routine?

Pile on the Antioxidants

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The skin’s repair capacity and barrier function can be reinforced by using product rich in antioxidants, DNA repair enzymes, fractionated lipids, and anti-inflammatories. Agents that repair elastin, collagen and keratin should also be used to improve regeneration.  Our award-winning skin restorer Daily Power Defense stimulates collagen production and uses a blend of powerful enzymes that encourages cellular activity to aid DNA repair and offset damage caused by pollutants.

Get Serious About SPF

All sunscreens, regardless of the labelled SPF, can protect your skin for a maximum of 90 minutes. After that, they wipe away, disintegrate or get removed through perspiration. Therefore, you should be strict about reapplying your SPF every two hours and avoid exposure all together when the sun is at its most intense.

Daily-Sheer-spf50, sun protection, DNA damage

Water and perspiration resistant, Daily Sheer SPF 50 delivers powerful protection during outdoor activities. Formulated with skin hydrators and natural nourishing ingredients, Daily Sheer does not only guard your complexion from the harmful UVB/UVA rays but also prevents dryness and supports the natural moisture balance of the skin.

 

 

5 Surprising Causes of Melasma

Melasma is a very common skin condition. It causes dark irregular patches on skin, otherwise known as hyperpigmentation. Most people, at some point of their lives, come across this patchy brown discoloration and while it’s not a dangerous condition, it’s certainly an unpleasant one. Although, most people would not pay much attention to it, an old saying goes – “forewarned is forearmed”. Here are five causes of melasma which will make you scratch your head:

 1. Birth control pills may cause melisma

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About 70% of pregnant women develop brown patches on the upper lip, cheek or forehead. Similar discolouration patterns have been observed in women using hormonal contraception. Experts link the excess production of pigment with the increase of oestrogen when using hormonal contraceptives or during pregnancy.

2. You may have a higher chance of having melasma

 dna, genetic predisposition, melasma, melasma causes

Yes, one of the factors of having melasma is genetic predisposition. Usually, for example, it is the people with a darker skin tone who are most likely to be affected by this skin condition. Unlucky tanners!

3. Your beloved skin products can cause it

skincare products, melasma, melasma causes

Actually, not all of them, but it’s true. Skin products that tend to irritate, inflame or burn your skin can cause hyperpigmentation. If you use skincare products that sting or burn, consider buying softer ones to avoid black spots. We recommend using ZO Skin Health products for a combination of gentle treatment and effective results.

4. Sun protection

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And more precisely, the lack of it. Ultraviolet radiation is prone to penetrate the skin cells on the face and cause a mutation leading to darkening of the skin cells. It is always useful to wear adequate clothing and we also remind you that the use of sun protection is crucial for healthy looking skin. At ZO Skin Health, you will find products that combine sun protection with treatment of hyperpigmentation and discoloration.

5. Mysterious condition

The unusual thing about melasma is that the principal cause of this condition is yet to be known. This creates lots of room for speculation about its cause and unreasonable tales about traditional remedies. Our advice is, keep out of the sun if you aren’t wearing sunscreen, lead a healthy lifestyle, use ZO Skin Health Fundamental Five regime and you will be fine!